Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years.
The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite.
Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia or pericarditis.
Recent professional guidelines classify the severity of chronic kidney disease in five stages, with stage 1 being the mildest and usually causing few symptoms and stage 5 being a severe illness with poor life expectancy if untreated. Stage 5 CKD is also called established chronic kidney disease and is synonymous with the now outdated terms end-stage renal disease (ESRD), chronic kidney failure (CKF) or chronic renal failure (CRF).
Causes of Chronic renal failure
The most common causes of CKD are diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis. Together, these cause approximately 75% of all adult cases. Certain geographic areas have a high incidence of HIV nephropathy.
Historically, kidney disease has been classified according to the part of the renal anatomy that is involved, as:
• Vascular, includes large vessel disease such as bilateral renal artery stenosis and small vessel disease such as ischemic nephropathy, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and vasculitis
• Glomerular, comprising a diverse group and subclassified into
1. Primary Glomerular disease such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and IgA nephritis
2. Secondary Glomerular disease such as diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephritis
• Tubulointerstitial including polycystic kidney disease, drug and toxin-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and reflux nephropathy.
• Obstructive such as with bilateral kidney stones and diseases of the prostate.
Symptoms of Chronic Renal failure
Initial symptoms may include the following:
• Frequent hiccups
• General ill feeling
• Generalized itching (pruritus)
• Nausea, vomiting
• Unintentional weight loss.
• Loss of appetite.
• Increased frequency of urination.
• Excessive urination at night
• Swelling of face.
Later symptoms may include the following:
• Blood in the vomit or in stools
• Decreased alertness, including drowsiness,confusion, delirium, or coma.
• Decreased sensation in the hands, feet, or other areas
• Easy bruising or bleeding
• Increased or decreased urine output
• Muscle twitching or cramps
• White crystals in and on the skin (uremic frost).
Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:
• Abnormally dark or light skin
• Agitation or irritability.
• Breath odor
• Excessive nighttime urination
• Excessive thirst
• High blood pressure
• Loss of appetite
• Nail abnormalities
• difficulty in breathing
• Pain in chest.
• Bone pains.
Complications of Chronic Renal Failure
• Decreased immune response
• Decreased libido, impotence
• High blood pressure
• Increased risk of infections
• Joint disorders
• Liver inflammation (hepatitis B or hepatitis C)
• Liver failure
• Loss of blood from the gastrointestinal tract
• Menstrual irregularities,mscarriage, infertility
• Skin dryness, itching /scratching with resultant skin infection
• Weakening of the bones
Diagnosis of Chronic Renal Failure
Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine. Higher levels of creatinine indicate a falling glomerular filtration rate (rate at which the kidneys filter blood) and as a result a decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products. Creatinine levels may be normal in the early stages of CKD, and the condition is discovered if urinalysis (testing of a urine sample) shows that the kidney is allowing the loss of protein or red blood cells into the urine.
To fully investigate the underlying cause of kidney damage, various forms of medical imaging, blood tests and often renal biopsy (removing a small sample of kidney tissue) are employed to find out if there is a reversible cause for the kidney malfunction.
General management of Chronic Renal Failure
• Fluid restriction according to urinary output.
• Maintain electrolyte balance.
• Control of B.P.
• Correction of anaemia (anaemia of renal failure does not respond to any therapy ).
• Dialysis & kidney transplantation, if general & medical management fails.
• Protein restriction to 0.5gm/kg body weight.
Homeopathy Treatment & Homeopathic Remedies for Chronic Kidney Disease
Aim of homeopathic treatment
To improve kidney function, so that patient will not need dialysis or kidney transplant.
To make a person healthy instead of giving other compensatory sufferings.
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history of the patient, physical and mental constitution etc. A miasmatic tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) is also often taken into account for the treatment of chronic conditions. The medicines given below indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete and definite guide to the treatment of this condition. The symptoms listed against each medicine may not be directly related to this disease because in homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional indications are also taken into account for selecting a remedy. To study any of the following remedies in more detail, please visit our Materia Medica section. None of these medicines should be taken without professional advice.
Commonly indicated Homoeopathic Remedies
- Allium cepa
- Argentum nit.
- Aurum met.
- Benzoic acid
- Cannabis indica c
- Annabis sativa
- Crotalus horridus
- Eupatorium purpureum.
- Helonias dioica.
- Kali chlor
- Mercurius cor
- Natrum mur
- Nux vomica
- Rhus tox
- Senecio aur.
- Urine Scanty, red, hot, painful.
- Tenesmus and burning at neck of bladder.
- Burning in urethra.
- Urine suppressed, bloody.
- Anxiety always on beginning to urinate.
- Retention, with screaming and restlessness, and handling of genitals.
- Renal region sensitive.
- Profuse urination, with profuse perspiration and diarrhoea.
- Pains in renal region, and region of bladder very sensitive.
- Sensation of weakness in bladder and urethra.
- Increased secretion of urine with coryza.
- Urine red with much pressure and burning in urethra.
- Pain in kidney region, more left side. Urine frothy and iridescent. Red.
- Swelling or puffing up of various parts, oedema, red rosy hue, stinging pains, soreness, intolerance of heat, and slightest touch, and afternoon aggravation are some of the general guiding symptoms.
- Generalized swelling, acute inflammation of kidneys is the characteristic pathological states corresponding to Apis.
- Extreme sensitiveness to touch and general soreness is marked. Much prostration.
- Pain in both kidneys (Bright’s disease). Renal pains; soreness; pressure on stooping.
- Burning and soreness when urinating.
- Urine suppressed, loaded with casts; frequent and involuntary; stinging pain and strangury;
- Urine scanty, high colored. Last drops burn and smart.
- Suppression of urine.
- “Acute inflammatory affection of kidneys, with albumin in urine.
- Typical Apis is thirstless: intolerant of heat.
- Touching the kidney region increases the pain to the highest degree.
- Acute pain of kidneys, extends down ureters to bladder; worse slightest touch or motion, even deep inspiration.
- Typical Arg. Nit. Has apprehension. Gets diarrhea from anticipation.
- Craves sweets, which disagree: salt.
- Is nervous: hurried: walks fast.
- Inflammation of kidney with stitches pain in renal region; on breathing or sneezing.
- Debility, exhaustion, and restlessness, with nightly aggravation, are most important.
- Great exhaustion after the slightest exertion.
- Urine, dark-brown; dark yellow: turbid: mixed with blood and pus; greenish.
- Urine like thick beer; rotten smell. Suppression of urine.
- Extreme restlessness, anxiety, prostration.
- Stinging, burning pain, from region of kidneys down into bladder.
- “No remedy has a greater irritation in the bladder and along the urinary tract.”
- Pains clutch: come and go suddenly.
- , typically, has redness, great heat to touch.
- Kidney pains, which penetrate the chest on taking a deep breath.
- Sore pain in back: burning in left kidney; with drawing pain when stooping.
- Urine of a very repulsive odour. Pungent. Contains mucus and pus.
- Strong, hot, dark-brown urine.
- Soreness lumbar region and Kidneys.
- Can bear no pressure: no jar Has to step down carefully.
- Jar or jolt intolerable.
- Burning; burning stitches, loins and kidneys.
- Sore kidneys with urinary disturbances.
- Has bubbling sensation, and pains that radiate from a point.
- “Pain in back a chief indication for Berberis.”
- The whole urinary organs and genitalia are in a state of inflammation and irritation.
- Discharge of bloody urine burns like fire.
- Intensity and rapidity are the features of this remedy.
- Dull pressing or paroxysmal cutting and burning pains in both kidneys: very sensitive to slightest touch.
- Urging to urinate. Painful evacuation, by drops, of bloody urine, or pure blood.
- Intolerable urging, before, during and after urination.
- Violently acute inflammation.
- Inflammation of kidney with diminished secretion of urine, with great desire to pass it.
- Urine saturated with albumin.
- Dark brown: mixed with blood: with dirty white sediment.
- Violent and frequent urging to urinate.
- Urine dark-red; becomes turbid and fetid: smells sour and pungent.
- Burning and scalding sensation during urination as from raw surfaces.
- Worse at night.
- Kidneys secrete less urine or none, in acute diseases, in children, in eruptive fevers etc.
- Great desire to urinate, though secretion is suppressed.
- Urine dribbles away very slowly and feebly.
- Retention: sensation urine could not be passed, because of narrowness of urethra.
- After straining, a few drops are passed.
- Better after drinking vinegar.
- “Congestive kidneys, with dull aching, and smoky-looking urine.”
- Violent burning and drawing pains in kidneys, bladder and urethra.
- Pressure in kidneys when sitting; relieved by motion.
- Stiff all over; heaviness and pains in region of kidneys.
- Renal disease producing dropsy. Rapid attack with lumbar pain.
- Urine greatly diminished: loaded with albumen: contains casts and blood.
- Urine smoky: with “coffee grounds” or thick, slimy, sediment.
- “Haemorrhages from all outlets, especially in connection with urinary or kidney troubles.”
- Kidneys inflamed: feet swollen.
- Urine: profuse, light yellow: contains sugar: foams, scanty, exceedingly dark.
- Pain left kidney to epigastrium.