Hypertension is the condition when blood pressure increases beyond its normal limit. i.e 140/90 mmHg.
What is Blood Pressure?
- Blood pressure is the pressure generated by circulating blood, against the wall of large blood vessels.
- This pressure is ultimately resulting of the force by which blood is pumped out from the heart to reach every organ and tissue of the body.
- Blood pressure is expesssed in the terms of systolic and diastolic pressure.
- Systolic pressure is the maximum pressure on the blood vessels when heart contracts to pumped out blood. It ranges between 100-140 mmHg.
- Diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure on the blood vessels when heart gets relaxed to fill with blood. It ranges between 60-90 mmHg.
- Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury or mmHg (millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high)
- Blood pressure is one of the vital signs, along with respiratory rate, heart rate, and body temperature.
Category of Hypertension
|Category||Systolic (mmHg)||Diastolic (mmHg)|
|Hypotension||< 90||< 60|
|Prehypertension (high normal)||120–129|
|Stage 1 hypertension||140–159|
|Stage 2 hypertension||160–179|
Hypertension / High Blood Pressure – TYPES and CAUSES
Primary or essential hypertension – About 90–95% of cases of hypertension are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors.
Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use.
Secondary hypertension – The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause and underlying disease.
Causes of secondary hypertension includes –
- Adrenal gland tumors
- Cushing’s syndrome
- Kidney disorders
- Glomerulonephritis (inflammation of kidneys)
- Renal vascular obstruction or narrowing
- Renal failure
- Use of medications, drugs, or other chemicals
- Oral contraceptives
- Periarteritis nodosa
- Embolus in blood vessels
- Fibro muscular dyspklasia
- Polyarthritis nodosa
- Ploycystic disease
- Wilms tumor
- Diabetes mellitus
- Renal artery stenosis
- Coarctation of aorta
- Excessive use of steroids, oral contraceptives, cyclosporine
- Toxemia of pregnancy
- Lead poisoning
- Raised intracranial pressure
Hypertension / High Blood Pressure – SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Usually, no symptoms are present. Occasionally, you may experience
- Blurred vision
- Chest pain
- Difficulty in breathing
If your headache is severe, or if you experience any of the symptoms below, you must be seen by a doctor right away. These may be a sign of dangerously high blood pressure (called malignant hypertension) or a complication from high blood pressure.
- Vision changes
- Angina-like chest pain (crushing chest pain)
- Heart failure
- Blood in urine
- Irregular heartbeat
- Ear noise or buzzing
Hypertension / High Blood Pressure -SYMPTOMS
Hypertension occasionally causes headache but most patients remain asymptomatic. Accordingly, the diagnosis is usually made at routine examination or when a complication arises.
The history may reveal a family history, lifestyle factors (exercise, salt intake, smoking, alcohol intake) and potential drug causes. There may be symptoms suggesting a secondary hypertension according to the cause.
Hypertension / High Blood Pressure – CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT
Medications may include diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or alpha blockers. Medications such as hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide, or nitroprusside may be required if the blood pressure is very high.
Hypertension / High Blood Pressure – WHAT ELSE CAN I DO?
- Lifestyle changes may help control high blood pressure:
- Lose weight if you are overweight. Excess weight adds to strain on the heart. In some cases, weight loss may be the only treatment needed.
- Exercise to help your heart.
- Adjust your diet as needed. Decrease fat and sodium — salt, MSG, and baking soda all contain sodium. Increase fruits, vegetables, and fiber.
Hypertension / High Blood Pressure – Homeopathy Treatment & Homeopathic Remedies
Raised blood pressure is not a disease in itself. It is just a sign of some underlying disorder. Homeopathy offers good prognosis for cases of essential hypertension. The treatment is based upon the cause and the totality of the case. Many homeopathic remedies are successfully used to control hypertension.
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history of the patient, physical and mental constitution etc.
Following homeopathic medicines have been found effective in many cases of Hypertension:
- Viscum album
- Baryta mur
- Allium sativa
- Arnica montana
- Aurum muriaticum
- Ignatia amara
- Natrum muriaticum
- Secale cornatum
- Veratrum album
- Cactus grandiflorus
- Crataegus oxyacantha
- Convallaria majalis
- Coffea cruda
- Lobelia inflata
- Prunus spinosa
- Rauvolfia serpentina
- Spartium scoparium
- Valeriana officinalis
- Viscum album
- Nux is pre-eminently the remedy for many of the conditions incident to modern life.
- The typical Nux patient is rather thin, spare, quick, active, nervous, and irritable.
- Hypertension due to altered life style.
- Intoxicated feeling; worse, morning, mental exertion, tobacco, alcohol, coffee, open air.
- Frontal headache, with desire to press the head against something.
- Constipation, with frequent ineffectual urging, incomplete and unsatisfactory; feeling as if part remained unexpelled.
- It helps to lowered blood pressure.
- In head feeling as if whole vault of skull were lifted up.
- Blue ring around eyes. Double vision.
- Buzzing and stopped-up feeling in ear.
- The symptoms point especially to rheumatic and gouty complaints; neuralgia, especially sciatica.
- Weight and oppression of heart; as if a hand were squeezing it; tickling sensation about heart.
- Great lassitude, no inclination to work.
- Extreme irritability, easily excited by the slightest opposition, ending in congestive head symptoms.
- Great remedy for congestive headaches.
- Head heavy, but cannot lay it on pillow.
- Cannot bear any heat about head.
- Better from uncovering head.
- Throbbing headache. Very irritable.
- Vertigo on assuming upright position.
- Head feels enormously large, as if skull were too small for brain.
- Hypertension and vascular degeneration.
- Increased pulse.
- Arterio-sclerosis where a high systolic pressure with a comparatively low diastolic tension is attended by cerebral and cardiac symptom.
- General feeling of lassitude in the morning, especially weakness of the legs, with muscular stiffness.
- Whizzing and buzzing in ears.
- Noises in ears on chewing and swallowing, or sneezing.
- Arterial hypotension begins usually in 30 to 45 minutes after twenty to forty drop doses of the tincture.
- High livers. Patients who eat a great deal more, especially meat, than they drink.
- Heavy; pulsation in temples.
- Voracious Burning eructations.
- Least change in diet causes trouble.
- Constipation, with constant dull pains in bowels
- Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th ed, McGraw-Hill
- Davidson’s Principles and Practise of Medicine, 17th ed, 1996, Churchill Livingstone
- New Manual of Homeopathic Materia Medica & Repertory, William Boericke, 2nd revised ed., 2001, B. Jain