Injury/Injuries, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Tissue damage may be the result of:
- Unpredictable accident or injury
- Over lifting
- Excessive force
- Poor posture
- Skeletal immaturity
- Lack of conditioning
- Muscle imbalance
Types of external forces that results in Injury
- Excessive compression – Squeezing or condensing of tissue due to external forces applied directly from the surface or body tissue is compressed between two hard surfaces.
- Shear and friction – Forces that cause tissue to “slide” over adjoining surfaces or structures in a parallel fashion or pushing body in one specific direction, and another surface in the opposite direction.
- Torsion – Twisting mechanism that causes rotation of the body part along long axis or fixed point. For example body rotated along the axis when foot or leg is fixed.
- Bending – Deformation of tissue into convex or concave shapes due to the external force applied perpendicularly. For example when a force is applied perpendicularly on long bones results in deformation into convex or concave shape.
Classification of Injury
- Acute Injuries – injury that has sudden onset, short duration.
- Chronic Injuries – Gradual onset, prolonged duration, and occur as a result of accumulation of minor insults or repetitive stresses to the tissue. Mechanism not often known. Overuse, repetitive micro traumas, repetitive overloading, abnormal friction that is greater than body’s ability to heal and recover are the common cause of chronic tissue injuries.
Grading and types of Injury
Contusion or bruise
- It is the blue green discoloration of skin due to blunt trauma. Tiny capillaries get burst due to force and blood accumulated under the skin gives bluish discoloration to the skin.
- Swelling discoloration and deformity
- Compression of soft tissue due to direct blow or impact
- Damage to small capillaries in tissue
- Local bleeding (hemorrhage), causing ecchymosis (discoloration of tissue), may be immediate or delayed
Degree of severity of contusion
- First degree: superficial damage, minimal swelling, localized tenderness, no limitations to strength.
- Second Degree: Increased pain and hemorrhage, increased area and depth of tissue damage, mild to moderate limitation of range of motion and muscle function.
- Third degree: severe tissue compression, severe pain, significant hemorrhage and development of blood clot. Significant limitations of range of motion and muscle function. Suspect damage to deeper structures.
- Injury to ligaments or capsular structure which surrounds the joint. Ligaments are the fibrous tissue that attach bone to bone. Injury occurs when 2 bones separate or go beyond normal range of motion.
Degree of severity of sprain
- First Degree: mild overstretching. Mild pain and tenderness, little or no disability
- Second Degree: Further stretching and partial disruption or macro tearing of ligament. Moderate to severe pain. Bruise, swelling. Range of motion limited due to pain and swelling.
- Third Degree: Complete disruption or rupture or loss of ligament integrity. Immediate pain and disability. Rapid swelling. Bruise and loss of function
- Stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon. Violent, forceful contraction or overstretching of the part.
Degree of severity of Strain
- First Degree: overstretching and micro tearing of muscle or tendon. No gross fiber disruption. Mild pain and tenderness. No limitation of range of motions.
- Second Degree: further stretching or partial tearing of muscle or tendon fibers. Immediate pain, localized tenderness and disability. Varying degrees of swelling, bruise, and decreased range of motion and strength.
- Third Degree: Muscle or tendon completely ruptured. Immediate pain and loss of function. Palpable defect on superficial muscles. Muscle hemorrhage and diffuse swelling. Range of motion and strength may or may not be affected or painful
Open (Exposed) Wounds
- Injuries that involve disruption of the skin
- Caused by friction or blunt or sharp trauma
- Susceptible to infection
- Symptoms include increased pain, redness, swelling, heat.
Laceration of nerve can occur secondary to fracture, dislocation, and penetrating injuries.
Symptoms of nerve injury include –
- Anesthesia (no sensation)
- Parathesia (tingling, burning, numbness)
- Hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity)
- Paralysis (complete loss of muscle function)
- Neuropraxia (transient and reversible loss of nerve function)
- Axontmesis (partial disruption of nerve)
- Neuralgia (aching or pain along distribution of nerve secondary to irritation or inflammation)
- Neuroma (thickening of a nerve or “nerve tumor”, secondary to chronic irritation or inflammation)
Homeopathic Remedies & Homeopathy Treatment for Injuries like fracture, dislocation, bruise, ecchymoses, laceration, cuts, sprains & post-operative complications
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which a patient is suffering.
The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat injuries, but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility of the patient. For this patient’s current symptoms, past medical history and family history are taken into account. There are many homeopathic remedies which cover the symptoms of injuries and can be selected on the basis of cause, location, sensation, modalities and extension of the pain. For individualized remedy selection and treatment of injuries, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person. Some important homeopathic remedies for the treatment of injuries are given below:
- Agnus castus
- Ammonium carb
- Apis mel
- Bellis per.
- Calcarea carb.
- Natrum sulph
- Rhus tox
- A most remarkable healing agent, applied locally.
- Useful for open wounds, parts that will not heal, ulcers, etc.
- Promotes healthy granulations and rapid healing by first intention.
- Pain is excessive and out of all proportion to injury.
- Promotes favorable cicatrization, with least amount of suppuration.
- Superficial burns and scalds.
- The great remedy for injuries to nerves, especially of fingers, toes and nails. Crushed fingers, especially tips.
- Excessive painfulness is a guiding symptom to its use.
- Punctured wounds.
- Relieves pain after operations.
- Injured nerves from bites of animals. Tetanus.
- Coccyx injury from fall, with pain radiating up spine and down limbs.
- Old ulcers or sores in mouth when very sensitive.
- Lacerated wounds with much prostration from loss of blood.
- For punctured wounds, produced by sharp-pointed instruments or bites particularly if the wounded parts are cold, this is the remedy.
- Tetanus with twitching of muscles near wound.
- Long discoloration after injuries.
- Ankles swollen. Easy spraining of ankle.
- Sensation as of cold water over parts; general coldness with heat of face.
- It is especially suited to cases when any injury has caused the present trouble.
- After traumatic injuries, overuse of any organ, strains. A muscular tonic.
- Limbs and body ache as if beaten; joints as if sprained. Bed feels too hard.
- Echymosis and haemorrhages. Relaxed blood vessels, black and blue spots.
- Fears touch, or the approach of anyone.
- Nervous; cannot bear pain; whole body oversensitive.
- Acts upon the periosteum and cartilages.
- Complaints from straining.
- All parts of the body are painful, as if bruised.
- Lameness after sprains. Injured “bruised” bones.
- Thighs pain when stretching the limbs.
- Pain in bones of feet and ankles.
- Great restlessness.
- Legs give out on rising from a chair, hips and thighs so weak.
- Rhus affects fibrous tissue markedly-joints, tendons producing pains and stiffness.
- Post-operative complications. Tearing pains.
- Motion always “limbers up” the Rhus patient, and hence he feels better for a time from a change of position.
- Ailments from strains, over lifting, getting wet while perspiring.
- Limbs stiff paralyzed. The cold fresh air is not tolerated; it makes the skin painful.
- Numbness after overwork and exposure. Paralysis; trembling after exertion.